The discovery of the ionization of gases by ultra-violet light was made by Philipp Lenard in 1900. As the effect was produced across several centimeters of air and made very great positive and small negative ions, it was natural to interpret the phenomenon, as did J. J. Thomson, as a Hertz effect upon the solidContinue reading “PHOTO-ELECTRIC. A NOBEL AWARD ARTICLE [1921]”


In the X-ray regime, the photoelectric effect in crystalline material is often decomposed into three steps: 1)Inner photoelectric effect . The hole left behind can give rise to auger effect, which is visible even when the electron does not leave the material. In molecular solids phonons are excited in this step and may be visible asContinue reading “Three-step model(PHOTOELCTRIC EFFECT)”

Neutrino – What is it?

A neutrino electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin. The neutrino (meaning “small neutral one” in Italian) is denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu). All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but that their mass is tiny even by the standards of subatomic particles. Their mass has never been measured accurately.Continue reading “Neutrino – What is it?”

important role of supersymmetry in Unification of forces (grand unified theory)

The unification of forces is possible due to the energy scale dependence of force coupling parameters in quantum field theory called renormalization group running, which allows parameters with vastly different values at usual energies to converge to a single value at a much higher energy scale. It is commonly believed that this matching is unlikelyContinue reading “important role of supersymmetry in Unification of forces (grand unified theory)”

The Einstein field equations (EFE)

i never tried these equations untill i make my own mathematical approaches to the level of mathematical physics. i never suggest readers of my blog to not read einstiens field equations,the field equations needs higher mathematics…guys once think about the photoelectric effect ,that was greatest discovery which einstien got nobel prize,but now school childrens learnContinue reading “The Einstein field equations (EFE)”

Gravitational singularity(simple way understanding)

is gravitational singularity and space time singularity are same? simple its same,guys the time and space sometimes makes an whirlpool like pattern(i personaly understand like this) this patern is no longer uniform,it may be a swirl type or water pool type,it may be affected by singularity works?what is singularity?A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularityContinue reading “Gravitational singularity(simple way understanding)”

worm hole (short cut to space time)

the idea behind this worm hole is given by albert einstien.when einstien publishes his general theory of relativity,it contains the space-time,gravity-time wrap,gravity curve.etc.A wormhole, also known as an Einstein–Rosen bridge,is a hypothetical topological feature of spacetime that would be fundamentally a “shortcut” through spacetime. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two ends eachContinue reading “worm hole (short cut to space time)”

what is the applications of particle accelerators?

Beams of high-energy particles are useful for both fundamental and applied research in the sciences, and also in many technical and industrial fields unrelated to fundamental research. It has been estimated that there are approximately 26,000 accelerators worldwide. Of these, only about 1% are research machines with energies above 1 GeV, while about 44% areContinue reading “what is the applications of particle accelerators?”

Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.[1] There are two basic classes of accelerators, known as electrostatic and oscillating field accelerators. Electrostatic accelerators use static electric fields to accelerate particles. A small-scale example of this class is theContinue reading “Particle accelerator”

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